Research Methods 203
The second paper will be written in APA style and include a minimum of eight references.
It will contain each of the following sections clearly labeled.
Prior research has suggested a positive linear relationship (i.e., correlation) between anxiety and depression. This investigation explored this relationship with a group of university freshmen. Sixty students participated (i.e., thirty male and thirty female). Results indicated a positive linear relationship between anxiety and depression. Results are congruent with prior research in the research. Further research should expand this investigation to include higher grade levels.
Both depression and anxiety are both prevalent and debilitating. Both cause significant emotional suffering, increased unemployment, difficulty in relationships, and an adverse impact on academic functioning. Prior research has demonstrated these two psychological conditions often coexist in the general population (Appleton, 2011; Keyes & Black, 2009). There is however a lack of research in this area exploring whether these conditions coexist in college freshman. The first year in college is particularly stressful and represents a significant adjustment hurdle (Petty, 2003). Further freshman grades are often predictive of later grades (Query & Bates, 2015; Zach & Connerty, 2007). Both anxiety and depression have been shown to adversely impact academic functioning (Gapling & Perry, 2004; Newton, How, & Emerson, 2007). This investigation explored the relationship between anxiety and depression in a freshman college population.
Participants were recruited through a number of means. Fliers were posted on various bulletin boards around the campus. E-mails advertising the investigation were sent to all freshmen. A total of 100 (i.e., sixty-three males, thirty-seven females) students responded to the advertisement through e-mails or phone calls. Eighty (i.e., fifty-two males, twenty-eight females) of these students met the inclusionary criteria and scheduled appointments at the college’s counseling center. Sixty-five students attended their appointment (i.e., forty-five males, twenty females). Five of these students did not complete the investigation and were thus not included in the data analyses. A total of sixty (i.e., forty males, twenty females) student’s data was included. The mean (i.e., average) age of participants included in the data analyses was 20.7 years (sd = 2.5).
Upon arriving at the counseling center student were asked to complete a consent form that was previously approved by the college’s Institutional Review Board (IRB). After signing the consent form students were asked to complete both and anxiety and depression survey. Each participant was given five dollars in return for their participation at the end of the investigation.
The Beck Anxiety Scale (BAS; Beck, 2016) was employed; the Yale Depression Scale (YDS; Yale, 2016) was employed. The BAS ranged from 0 – 100 (i.e., 0 = no discernable anxiety; 100 = panic). The YDS ranged from 0 – 100 (0 = no depression; 100 = thoughts of suicide/homicide). Prior research (Smith, 2015, Yardley, 2013) has demonstrated both Beck’s and Yale’s reliability and validity (Renout, 2014; Strem, 2011). A within group research design was employed. The null hypothesis (r = 0) was tested against the alternative hypothesis (r ≠ 0). An alpha level of .05 was employed as criterion for acceptance/rejection. This is congruent with prior research in the field.
The mean BAS score was 52 (sd = 11.8); the mean YDS score was 43 (sd = 5.2). A correlational analysis was conducted. Results demonstrated a significant positive correlation between the BAS and YDS scales (r = .43; p = .03). An alpha (i.e., α) value of .05 was used to define “significant.” This means there is a three percent (i.e., p =.03) chance that the sample was this extreme by chance alone. There is a three percent chance (i.e., p=.03) a Type I error was committed. The null hypothesis was rejected.
Results demonstrated that anxiety and depression often coexist in college freshmen. Given the null hypothesis was rejected these findings run the risk of committing a Type I error (i.e., false positive). It should be noted that although the correlation coefficient was significant is was small to moderate in strength/magnitude. Further 23 participants reported no anxiety; 15 participants reported no depression. This limited and moderately skewed our correlation coefficient. This investigation recruited a limited number of participants. Further research should strive to enlarge this sample and expand it to different populations. Overall our findings are congruent with prior research (Appleton, 2015; Bayer & Johnson, 2011; Keyes & Black, 2009
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