SYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS BEHIND THE OMP ATTACK
In June 2015, the US OPM stated that their data innovation frameworks had been attacked through cyberspace. The personal information of 4.2 million current and former government employees may have been compromised due to this incident. OPM then discovered a variety of cyber-attacks during the same month that compromised the information of 21.5 million individuals who had records in databases, including background checks on potential housing candidates
This breach was one of the most significant to occur in a governance framework in recent memory. The Einstein framework of the Office of Country Security (DHS) was used to identify this incident. As part of its Einstein framework, the DHS keeps a close eye on government Internet use for any signs of potential cyber threats (Fruhlinger, 2020). The attackers were able to get in using security credentials belonging to a KeyPoint Government Solutions salesperson. This person did federal background checks and worked on OPM frameworks to get access to OPM frameworks (Hinck & Maurer,2019).
At an insights conference, an admiral, executive of the National Security Organization (NSA), and chief of the U.S. Cyber Command, Michael Rogers, did not reveal who may be responsible for the hack (es) (Hinck & Maurer,2019). However, James Clapper (Chief of National Insights) said the next day in the same speech that China was the leading suspect in the breaches. If China had access to the material gleaned during the attack, it was unclear how it may utilize it.
Only a few experts disagreed with the theory that China is compiling a comprehensive list of government officials to identify US government officials and what their specific roles are. Spearphishing emails may trick recipients into establishing an interface or connection that will provide access to the general computer framework, which is another option for discovering the data.
The FBI charged Chinese malware broker Yu Pingan for his role in distributing malware. The allegations say that Pingan supplied hackers with malware that enabled them to gain access to many . The Sakula Trojan was also included in this group. On August 21st, at Los Angeles International Airport, he was taken into custody by LAPD officers. Two unidentified hackers were said to have collaborated with Pingan on a harmful attack against U.S. firm networks between April 2011 and January 2014 (Fruhlinger, 2020).
One of the tools used in the OPM attack was also used in an Anthem data compromise in 2015. Pingan pled guilty to his role in the plot. Sakula was used to help him breach OPM, he acknowledged. However, even though he was not explicitly tied to the OPM attack, the same malware he used in Anthem led authorities to suspect him of involvement in that incident.
The deep panda group
Hacker group Deep Panda is supported by the Chinese government. They were thought to have been involved in the OPM issue. Patterns uncovered in the Internet’s address book, known as the domain registration system, connect Deep Panda to the Anthem and Premera breaches (Finnemore, & Hollis, 2016). Deep Panda often on the web that closely resemble the ones they want to use as a redirect. Wellpoint may be found at we11point.com. Anthem used to be known by this name.
Because of the OPM breach, iSIGHT discovered a trend of similar-sounding names being used to create these bogus domains. According to domain registration data, several similar OPM websites were also found. Despite the evidence discovered, they still had some doubts and other reasons to believe that they weren’t responsible.
X1 & X2
The Congressional OPM data breach report named two groups: X1 and X2. They merely called themselves these organizations since they didn’t want to say who was responsible or even know who they were. Exfiltrating manuals and the IT system architecture were the only things the X1 gang could not get its hands on. The attackers’ attempts to infiltrate the networks of multiple contractors (such as USIS and KeyPoint) doing background checks on federal personnel with access to OPM computers were well-documented by December of that year.
OPM intended to perform a system reset in March 2014 to eliminate any intruders from the system. As an alternative, an , X2, could gain access to the system by exploiting the credentials of a different resource.
However, this vulnerability went undetected, and as a result, when the whole system was purged, it was not deleted. X1 and X2 have not been identified as belonging to the same organization or even a single individual. They may still work together even if they aren’t the same person. THIS BELIEF WAS FORMED because X1 had obtained information that may have been advantageous to X2’s goals. Deep Panda (as previously discussed) was also unclear as to whether he was one of them.
Understanding why certain crimes are committed, establishing profiles of prospective suspects, and connecting crimes to individuals or groups will continue to be important to its success. Behavior analysis employs both inductive and deductive approaches. In deductive investigations, a suspect’s characteristics may be hypothesized based on the investigation of certain components of the case. According to inductive reasoning, a suspect has the characteristics of an offender because of their generalization from empirical research.
Analyzing behavior patterns and comparing them is an important element of behavioral science. Criminals may not be aware that their actions are comparable to others’. According to the definition, “signature actions are generally indications of some desire or drive the suspect seeks to appease” (Rogers, 2016).
When Deep Panda does criminal conduct, they follow the same procedure. As a result, they were suspected of involvement based on their profile. Although X2’s domain names (Steve Rogers’, Tony Stark’s, etc.) looked to have some wit, it was hard to tell. These names may represent a certain style. Using these names to showcase their work and/or to guarantee that what they produced is remembered by others, they may have done so.
Behavioral analyses may also be used to determine whether a criminal or a group of criminals are responsible for various crimes. An investigator would be looking for a comparable modus operandi (MO) or conduct in these scenarios. MOs have learned behaviors that might alter as a person grows older or improves their abilities.
Because of this, other people may have been led to assume that they are the same person. If OPM was about to do a complete system reset, X1 may have learned of this and could not access the system. The individual or group would then have to develop a new strategy to preserve their position in the system after they realize this may happen.
They may have had to alter their entry strategy to accomplish this. There is a chance that X2 may have been spotted earlier if they had used the same technique. X1 was able to install keyloggers after gaining in using legitimate employees’ credentials. There is a possibility that X1 and X2 are the same individuals because X2 had also utilized personnel credentials (Soesanto, 2019). The only way to remain in was to modify at least a portion of their MO. This backdoor and a means of maintaining their access were created with the aid of malware.
The OPM hack was a complex case, as evidenced by the preceding paragraphs. Psychological profiles are a tool for analyzing people’s thoughts and feelings. However, they can only help if there is actual evidence to back up their claims. Two people can come to different conclusions based on how they profile. Rather than a fact, an individual’s profile is more of a hypothesis in need of verification. It’s only a personal viewpoint if that’s the case.
It is also possible that those who profile may not consider all of the relevant factors. For example, a profiler unfamiliar with technology may be unable to make certain connections that a profiler knowledgeable about technology can. To facilitate these connections, it may be helpful to have two people working together. Then, it may be easier to reach a conclusion and gather the relevant evidence.
Finnemore, M., & Hollis, D. B. (2016). Constructing norms for global cybersecurity.American Journal of International Law,110(3), 425-479. retrieved from:
Fruhlinger, J. (2020). The OPM Hack Explained: Bad Security Practices Meet Chinas Captain America| CSO Online.Chief Security Officer (CSO) by International Data Group (IDG), February,12, 2020.retrieved from:
Hinck, G., & Maurer, T. (2019). Persistent enforcement: criminal charges as a response to nation-state malicious cyber activity.J. Nat’l Sec. L. & Pol’y,10, 525. retrieved from:
Rogers, M. K. (2016). Psychological profiling as an investigative tool for digital forensics. InDigital Forensics(pp. 45-58). Syngress. retrieved from:
Soesanto, S. (2019).The Evolution of US Defense Strategy in Cyberspace (19882019). ETH Zurich. retrieved from:
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!
Essay Writing Service Features
Our ExperienceNo matter how complex your assignment is, we can find the right professional for your specific task. Nursing Area is an essay writing company that hires only the smartest minds to help you with your projects. Our expertise allows us to provide students with high-quality academic writing, editing & proofreading services.
Free revision policy$10
Free bibliography & reference$8
Free title page$8
How Our Essay Writing Service Works
First, you will need to complete an order form. It's not difficult but, in case there is anything you find not to be clear, you may always call us so that we can guide you through it. On the order form, you will need to include some basic information concerning your order: subject, topic, number of pages, etc. We also encourage our clients to upload any relevant information or sources that will help.Complete the order form
Once we have all the information and instructions that we need, we select the most suitable writer for your assignment. While everything seems to be clear, the writer, who has complete knowledge of the subject, may need clarification from you. It is at that point that you would receive a call or email from us.Writer’s assignment
As soon as the writer has finished, it will be delivered both to the website and to your email address so that you will not miss it. If your deadline is close at hand, we will place a call to you to make sure that you receive the paper on time.Completing the order and download