DESIGN AND IMPLEMANTATION OF AQUAPONIC SYSTEM
Student Name: IBTIHAJ YOUSUF ALHARTHY
Student Number: 130099
Supervisor Name: Mr. ATHAR AZIZ
DECLARATION BY THE STUDENT
I declare that this project report / dissertation titleddesign and implement aquaponics systemis my own work and has not been submitted in any form for another degree or diploma at any university or other institutions of tertiary education. Information derived from the published work of others has been acknowledged in the text and a list of references is given. I am fully aware of the Colleges policy on plagiarism and cheating, and that the penalty for submission of plagiarized report could result in a fail in Technical Project / Dissertation. I have submitted a copy of this full report in electronic form to my supervisor.
Nameibtihaj yousuf al-harthy
Student Number 130099
CERTIFICATE BY THE SUPERVISOR
The project report / dissertation titleddesign and implement aquaponics systemthe bonafide work ofibtihaj yousuf al-harthy,carried out under my supervision. I certify that the work presented in the project report / dissertation is carried out by him / her, and that he / she has achieved the set objectives of the project / dissertation. Information derived from the published work of others has been acknowledged in the text and a list of references is given at the end of the report. I have personally checked this final report for originality / plagiarism through the Turnitin website and, to the best of my knowledge and belief, satisfied that the report is free from plagiarism.
Countersigned by HoD
I would like to express my singular appreciations of gratitude to my advisor Mr. athar Aziz who advised and helped me with the technical project in all terms by understanding the given task in aspect and guide me in order to complete the technical project within the stated time.
Aquaponics refers to the raising of fish as well as growing of plants in a soil-less environment. Fish and plants grows at the same integrated system. The organic food source for plants is sourced from fish waste. On the other hand, plants carry out water filtration for the fish. Nitrifying bacteria also take part by converting ammonia resulting from fish to nitrates, and later to nitrates. Plants use nitrates to grow. Vermicomposting, which results from solid waste from fish is used by plants as food. The objectives of this project is to generate aquaponics system by the use of green energy obtained with solar panels. Build water recycle system that circulates water to fish tank and plants beds. Implement control and monitoring system using Arduino microcontroller interfaced with sensors, actuators, Bluetooth model that allows plants and fish to grow together in a symbiotic and precise environment. The user is in position to receive the updates of the system in a form an application that has been uploaded at their phone. the smart aquaponics systems are demonstrated to be cost-effective, self-sustainable and also be friendly to the ecology in the urban farming. The method can also be adapted to the farmers in the rural areas with the same problem in in the world.
Key Words:aquaponics, Arduino Microcontroller, sensor.
USB- universal serial bus
LED- light emitting diode
PCB- printed circuit board
Chapter 6 result and discussion
Chapter 1: Introduction
There is a major problem in the many countries that be more concern to the sustainability and food security. The problem of urbanization where towns and cities are growing at high speed due to the population increase. There is a problem of land scarcity and the food production is very low for both vegetables and fish production. In this project, we come up with design and development of a smart aquaponics system that was in a position to synergize farming of fish and growing of vegetables.
Aquaponics is the combination of different departments of farming in aquaculture and hydroponics. Aquaculture is the keeping of fish and other waterborne animals while hydroponics is growing plants without the availability of soil. The two departments of any aquaponics farm are dependent on each other in that the plants are fed by the aquatic animals while the animals feed the plants. The fish and the plants do not feed each other at the same time but they are feed indirectly through some intermediate bacteria that feed on both plants. Both plants and fish to feed on the intermediate bacteria thus making the food chain complete. The wastes that are generated by the fish are a source of nutrients for the plants. Aquaponics shares several of the benefits that aquiculture has over typical crop production ways including:
1. reduced expanse necessities,
2. minimize water consumption,
3. accelerated plant growth rates
4. productions are in controlled environments around the year.
This research paper, therefore, tries to a good aquaponics system that is capable of improving fish production and plant growing. This will be done through a collection of data from different aquaponics firms so as to help control the system well. The systems will be able to sense and notify the users an occurrence of an abnormal activity in the system. It may even go further to rectify the problem depending on the extent of the damage caused.
Include in chapter of introduction such is:
1.2.Aim of the Project
The aim of the project is to build an automated solar powered aquaponics system
To research about designing and implementing aquaponics system.
To design and implement automated solar powered aquaponics system
To study the working principle of the sensors and software implementation.
To study the working of Arduino microcontroller and software implementation.
Test and analysis system performance.
The project consist of hardware component and software programing, were the hardware and software are easy to use and cost efficient.
The aim of this project is to design and implement aquaponics system. By developing aquaponics and make it user friendly and cost efficient.
A comprehensive research has done to get information about the topic the research was in different places in web, journal papers and by asking some specialist in the ministry of agriculture, from the research done we got the advantages and disadvantage of the system and hardware and software implemented in the project then pre designed the system. Finally, get the result and the output.
Basic challenges that provide suitable environment for the aquaponics system, and difficulties to get some the component of the system.
The outline of the topic report contains 4 step: 1st, the introduction writing a subject generally and explaining all the steps followed. Secondly, literature Review is that the selection of 4 connected topics of project and writing introduction, components, diagram, operation, blessings and disadvantage, then the result. Third, the pre-design. Finally, the conclusion and Future work.
Chapter 1 Introduction
CHAPTER2: LITERATURE REVIEW
Five journal papers are selected close to the project topic and of course each one is different from the other through features, operations, Equipments, block diagram.
2.1 Paper 1 (Development of aquaponics System using Solar Powered Control Pump) N. R. Mohamad1, A. S. A.M. Soh2, A. Salleh3, N. M. Z. Hashim4, M. Z. A. Abd Aziz5, N. Sarimin6, A. Othman7, Z. A. Ghani8., (2013).
This paper describes a research that has been conducted in Malaysia for the development of aquaponics system to control water pumps and air pumps based on Peripheral Interface Controller (PIC) Technology. The Aquaponics system consists of solar panel, inverter, water pumps, microcontroller and air pumps. The solar is a renewable energy that produces a lower voltage compared to electricity. The inverter is used to convert a direct current to alternate current. The microcontroller is used to operate Aquaponics system for switching water pump and air pump. (Mohamad, 2013)
The methodology used to design the Aquaponics system is based on Multisim and Microchip MPLB IDE softwares, and water and air pumps, LEAD, acid battery, invertor and microcontroller hardware parts, as shown infigure1.
Figure2.1 Operation circuit of the Aquaponics system. (Mohamad, 2013)
Figure 2.1 illustrates the Aquaponics system operation during day time. The solar panels absorb sun energy and converts it to electrical energy to charge lead acid battery. It is very important for the solar panels to be in a correct angle to seize sun energy. The lead charge acid battery would determine whether the microcontroller and LDR would activate the air and water pumps. The invertor will convert the DC voltage to AC voltage. Thereafter, the energy converted would connect to the pump. As a result, this brings the whole cycle to operate. (Mohamad, 2013)
At night the lead acid battery supplies power to the air pumps until the next morning where the solar panel charges the lead acid battery.
Figure 2.2: A detailed operation of the Aquaponics system. (Mohamad, 2013)
During the research, the author has noted that the Aquaponics system is not cost efficient compared to electricity. Moreover, solar panels are more expensive to install and the energy is for a limited period of time in the day and is not static. In addition, there is a limited source of materials for producing solar panels; as a result, solar panels are expensive. Another challenge the author has noted was the replacing the electrical power to solar power. He stated that the solar energy requires an inverter to covert the DC voltage to AC voltage and set-p the voltage grid.
On the other hand, the Aquaponics system reduces the cost of the circuit and the microcontroller. It also provides a sustainable solution of producing green energy. In addition, it produces organic vegetables and fish.
2.2 Paper 2: (Water and Energy Conversion Grow System: Aquaponics and Aeroponics with a Cycle Timer). Roger Hancock., (2012).
According to author Roger, Aquaponics is a great way to provide enormous quantities of food to areas where water is needed. There are 4 main components to build an Aquaponics system. It requires a cycle timer, solar panels, Aquaponics system and live fish.
The cycle timer contains a 555 timer, Counter Chip, D Flip-Flop and a Solid State Relay DC to AC. The cycle timer depends on the size and maturity of plants. Accordingly, for young /new plants water spread would be ON for 1 minute and OFF for 5 minutes. As for mature /older plants, the water spread would be ON for 1 minute and OFF for 15 minutes. This guideline can be adjusted by the environmental condition of the plants. However, a rule of thumb the author noted was OFF timer should be set a few minutes before the plants starts drying out. Moreover, it is critical to ensure that plants roots are not drying out over drowning the roots. (roger hancock,2012)
Figure2.3 cycle timer warning diagram. (roger hancock,2012)
The solar panel is used to charge the battery with the suns energy. The size of the solar panel depends on the growth system of plants. In addition, solar panels can be used as a back-up power supplier. As for the inverter, it converts the DC energy into AC.
Using the aquaponics system can recycle 99.75% of the water used. In addition, the plants use fish waste as sufficient nutrition. Therefore, there is no need to add any more nutritions, which is cost reducing. According to NASAs report Aeroponics method can reduce water usage by 98 percent, fertile usage by 60 percent, and pesticide usage by 100 percent. Also, the aquaponics uses small water pumps, which consumes less amount of energy thus more efficient. The end result of this process is organic food is produced and green energy is generated.
Contrastingly, the Aquaponics system requires a balance between fish and plants, which is challenging to maintain due to the PH requirement and the temperature between fish and plants. Also, when more plants are grown, larger grow beds are needed, which can cost and weight a lot. Also, the water pump has to be relatively large because the high pressure is needed to spray the roots. As a result, the energy demand and back up is needed. Lastly, if the pH level goes off the balance, then water change is required.
2.3 Paper 3(Analysis of solar heating system for an aquaponics food production system) Kevin R. Anderson1, Maryam Shafahi1, Arthur Artounian1, Adam Chrisman2., (2015).
This paper describes a research that has been conducted in USA at the state of California for the development of aquaponics system heated by solar energy to sustain a living environment for fishes at 21C. aquaponics system heated by solar contain of solar collector, heat exchanger, data logger. pump and differential thermostatic controller. Solar collector, collect the solar energy from the sun during morning time then transfer the solar power to thermal storage tank. Thermal storage is 220-gallon storage tank with a Systems of attrition are closed systems, indirect, active. A heat transfer fluid (HTF, usually water) is pumped into a non-compressed closed loop through the compounds and separated from the end-use water heated through a heat exchanger. When the pump is idle, the HTF is removed from the compartments and tubing properly, leaving it empty and protected from frozen. Heat exchanger, an anti-flow heat exchanger between storage tank and fish tanks isolates the solar thermal heating ring from the fish supply water. Data logger is used to record heat exchanger inputs and output. In the Pump The flow rate of the solar collector ring is regulated by a timer, which operates only during daylight hours (Kevin R, 2015). As showing in figure 2.4.
Figure2.4 solar thermal heating system (Kevin R, 2015).
2.4 Paper 4 (An automated solar-powered aquaponics system towards agricultural sustainability in the Sultanate of Oman) Analene Montesines Nagayo, Cesar Mendoza, Eugene Vega and Raad K.S. Al Izki, Rodrigo S. Jamisola Jr., (2017)
According to the journal this paper represents an automated solar powered aquaponics system, designed and implemented to be conducted in the sultanate of Oman. The system is used to reduce the expenses of the agriculture and to improve the quality of the crops and fishes. the system is designed and implemented for the following modules, to generate aquaponics system by the use of green energy obtained with solar panels. Build water recycle system that circulates water to fish tank and plants beds. Implement control and monitoring system using Arduino microcontroller interfaced with sensors, actuators, GSM shield and NI LabVIEW that allows plants and fish to grow together in a symbiotic and precise environment and to implement heating and cooling system for the system.(Analene Montesines Nagay,2017)
Figure 2.5: Block diagram of the aquaponics control and monitoring system
(Analene Montesines Nagay,2017)
The figure above shows aquaponics control and monitoring diagram, system designed with specific consideration as following;
Water recirculation system: the system used in this design known as CHOP which stands for Constant Height One Pump system. In CHOP the water level in fish tank is continually maintained and so is deemed a really effective system to use and eliminates stress on the fish because of unsteady water levels. additionally, it used just one pump to deliver a continuing flow of water so saving power compare with multiple pump systems.
Block Diagram of Aquaponics Control and Monitoring System: Arduino microcontroller reads and develop data from different sensors through signal learning circuits that notice the water quality parameters of the cultivation tank and aquaculture beds, still because the greenhouse environmental parameters
Monitoring and Control Environmental Parameters: The environmental parameters like air temperature, relative humidity, greenhouse gas level and light intensity, within the greenhouse are controlled and monitored mechanically to boost the speed of chemical process or plant production within the agriculture beds.
Control and Monitoring of Water Quality Parameters: The water quality parameters of the aquaponics system resembling water temperature, pH level, dissolved O level, electrical conduction, total dissolve solids and salinity, square measure controlled and monitored to take care of the simplest growth conditions of the fish within the cultivation tank and therefore the plants on the agriculture beds.
Solar Energy Conversion System: in the energy conversion DC voltage is converted to AC voltage. The calculable AC power demand of the aquaponics system is 305 Watts and therefore the total energy demand per day is calculable at four,758 watt-hours.
When any default happens in the system the owner of the farm will receive a txt message. (Analene Montesines Nagay,2017)
The design of aquaponics system helps to reduce water consumption, produce organic food, and reduce land scape for cultivation of plants and fish, this project helped farmers to reduce the effort to inspect the system, were they receive text message that contain the data of the system.
2.6 paper 5 (smart aquaponics system for urban farming). Thu Ya Kyaw, Andrew Keong Ng, (2017)
This paper describes a research that has been conducted in Singapore for the development aquaponics system. The energy production in the system will be very important because it will help to run the whole system. The solar system will generate the power that will be used in the pumps, lights, fans, and heaters. There will be a floating energy that is chosen as a stock to be the energy balance. The floating energy varies within a specific range depending on the amount of power that is produced in the solar modules. The power has the same shape as solar irradiant and it is consumed by the aquaponics system. The transfer of power in the aquaponics system is shown in the figure below.
Figure 2.6. The system uses a Direct Current (Thu Ya Kyaw, 2017)
The data acquisition unit will be collecting data from all the sectors of the aquaponics system by completing an interconnection among all the seven modules of the system. These modules include the data acquisition unit where the data is first sent. They also record data for future reference about all the actions in the system. After recording, the data is sent to the alarm unit of the acquisition system. The data acquisition unit is shown in the figure below.
Figure2.7. data acquisition unit (Thu Ya Kyaw, 2017)
The alarm unit of the aquaponics system receives data from the acquisition unit of the system. The data is brought here so that the owner of the system can be alarmed about the information that has been detected by the system. This part of the system has three parts, the green LED light, a buzzer, and a red LED light. When the system is in a good condition, the alarm displays a green light but when it is unhealthy, it produces a red light. The red light is accompanied by a buzzing sound so as to easily alert the user about the risk situation of the system. (Graber, Junge, 2009)
When the rectification unit learns about the problem in the system, it has to intervene so as to correct the problem if it is capable of doing it. This is done through activation of the necessary actor that is capable of the rectification process. The central processor determines whether the actuators should be activated and it makes the decision depending on the information contained in the data collected. There are four types of actuators in the rectification unit. The water heater is one of the actuators that increases the temperature of the water if the data directs that the water temperature is too low for the fish and plants. The secondary water pump is another actuator n the machine that ensures that water in the fish tank does not get low that a certain level in case the primary water source fails to fill the required water level. The fourth actuator in the system is the fish feeder is responsible for feeding the fish if the food from the plants is not enough for their growth.
The central processing unit consists of two sections. One of the sections contains the Arduino Mega shield that is used for sending and receiving the information to and from the sensors and the actuators. They receive the information from the acquisition unit and sends it to the rectification unit. The other section has a camera that enables the live streaming of the data in the system.
The data collection in the project was done in search a way that the research consisted a large proportion of the total population of people benefiting from the aquaponics farming in California. This was aimed at making sure that the sample of the population was good enough to make a good conclusion about the farming. 85 000 aquaponics farmers were included in the research to determine the major problems facing the activity so as to make a good system that could help everyone in the industry. I wanted to know the major problems facing the industry at large so that we can look at the possible solutions to such problems. Some of the problems that were put in question were the low temperatures that usually hinder the fast growth of the crops and animals or even sometimes going further to kill them. Lack of proper lighting in the system that hindered the crops from manufacturing enough food for the fish was also another challenge that needed to be dealt with so as to make the farmers comfortable. Other farmers faced the problem of sometimes the fishes dying due to lack of enough water in the tanks when the primary water sources failed to work and the owners did not learn about the problem. All these problems had to be rectified using the newly implemented system. The system is mainly made from the perspective of using idea electrical engineering to make some electrical appliances used in making the farming easy. Some electrical theories are applied in the whole project so as to make sure it meets all the required standards to avoid failure at work that can always lead to losses to the farmers. Some ideas were borrowed from mechanical engineering to make the system move steadily to allow transfer of water and nutrients from one point to the other. (Rakocy, 2007)
This segment joined the methodology of the gadget and criteria, where it consolidates the square structure and its illuminations, and its standard discourages that is utilized in this gadget, change prerequisites and a little short about it and how it’s utilized in the contraption, and the streaming chart of the gadget in its last stage with an excavator light on it.
Chapter 2 Literature Review
CHAPTER 3 PRE-DESIGN
The aim of the project is to design and implement aquaponics system
DC regulator power supply
Signal conduction circuit
Hydroponic bed sensors
Figure 3.1 flowchart
3.1 Proposed system:
The proposed system is divided into two parts the first part is to generate aquaponics system with solar panel. While the second part is to use Bluetooth module which allows to receive the notifications and defaults of aquaponics system.
3.2 System Block Diagram:
The block diagram of the system consists of different components. First of all, it contains three types of sensors, PH sensor, humidity sensor and temperature sensor. The system also contains Arduino microcontroller, water pump generated with solar power and Bluetooth modem. Arduino microcontroller is the brain of the system were all components are connected to it for that it read and process data from different sensors and parts.
Figure 3.2 aquaponics circuit structure
3.3 Operation of the system:
An automated solar panel powered the aquaponics system which contain of several systems to operate the hole system, such as:
Arduino microcontroller, its the brain of the system, the microcontroller is connected to different devices like sensors, PH sensor, humidity sensor and temperature sensor.
A microcontroller system contains 14 digital pin and 6 analog pin and 1 SIM1. The PH sensor take the readings of the PH of the fish tank water and it will have connected to the Arduino through Uart pins. Then, Humidity sensor takes the readings in float for that it has it is programmed with DHT11. Moreover, the Bluetooth use serial software to interface between modem and microcontroller. As shown in figure 9.
Also, the water pump and the air pump are connected to the solar panel as shown in figure 10.
Furthermore, to get a perfect final result the microcontroller is programmed to detect the performance of the sensors and water pump, if any default accrued in the system a message will be sent through Bluetooth module to the owner and the buzzer will turn on.
3.4. Hardware Components:
Arduino Uno r3 with Cable
Arduino Uno R3 with cable is the microcontroller board which is designed based on ATmega328. It consists of 14 digital input as well as output pins, whereby six outputs can also be used as PWM and six as analog inputs. It also has 16 MHZ ceramic resonators, USB connectors, power jack, ICSP header as well as a reset button. It has all the parts required to support microcontroller. The cable is used to connect to a computer and to power using AC-to-DC adapter or maybe for a battery so start off. It differs from the rest of the boards because it never uses FTDI USB-to-serial driver chips rather is uses ATmega328 (Arduino, 2018).
figure 3.3 Arduino Uno (Arduino, 2018).
DC6-12V MINI Aquarium Water Pump R385
DC6-12V MINI Aquarium Water Pump is an essential round water air-diaphragm pump made R385 material model. The ABS metal and silicon shape tool consumes approximately 6W/H(Watt/Hour) of power and a voltage of roughly 6 Volts. The gadget is different from others as it can handle water up to 2500H with temperatures of close to 80C. The inner and outer diameters of the pump measure 6 mm and 9 mm respectively. The pumping device can be used to pump both air and water when changing water tanks and many others (Amazon, 2018).
Figure 3.4 water pump
12V 1.2AH rechargeable lead-acid battery
12V 1.2AH lead-acid battery is a rechargeable battery with 187 fast-on linkers or connectors that supplies a power voltage of 12V. This type of batteries consists of a leak-proof cover made of ABS resin casing, which is also UL94-HB fire resistant. They also comprise of a special provision to air transport A67 IATA & ICAO, which can reduce wetness and any spillages. Moreover, these batteries can be used to power several machines including cars, golf carts, wheelchairs, emergency lighting, and forklifts. The benefits of the batteries include their outstanding recovery after deep recharging and extremely low gas emissions (RS Component Ltd).
Figure 3.5 acid lead battery
Bluetooth module HC-5
HC-05 module is a smooth to use Bluetooth Serial Port Protocol module, aimed for obvious wireless serial connection setup. Serial port Bluetooth module is entirely certified Bluetooth enhanced facts rate 3Mbps Modulation with whole 2.4GHz radio transceiver and baseband. It makes use of CSR Bluecore 04 external single chip Bluetooth machine with CMOS technology and with Adaptive Frequency Hopping feature. It has the footprint as small as 12.7mmx27mm. wish it will simplify your normal design/improvement cycle. (Itead.cc, 2018)
Figure 3.6 Bluetooth module
Linear Voltage Regulator 5.0V 1.0A Positive L7805CV
This linear voltage regulator refers to a special ACO61 casing Positive regulator belonging to the L7805CV series, with a voltage output of 5.0V and current output of 1.0 A. The L7805CV regulators come with several output voltages such as 5V, 6V, 8.5V, 9, 12V, 18V, 22V, and many others, which make them critical to a wide range of applications. Besides this, they come with a current output of about 1.5A, thermal overload and short circuit safety, 2% percent voltage tolerance, and SOA or output transition security. These regulators offer critical on-card control, reducing distribution issues linked with single-point regulation (InYAR.com, 2018).
Figure 3.7 linear voltage regulator (InYAR.com, 2018).
5V Active Buzzer
5V active buzzer is a special buzzer designed for AC016 casing that will buzz on its own at a specifically-defined frequency of 2300Hz, even when a steady current is applied. The buzzer comes with an operating voltage of between 4 and 8V, a resonant frequency of 85 decibels, operating temperatures of between -20 and 45C. It weighs 1.6 g, stands 9.16 mm tall, and measures 11.78 mm long. Active buzzers are preferred because of their ability to produce sounds at steady direct currents as well as their capacity to give a variety of tones (Addicore, 2018).
Figure 3.8 active buzzer (Addicore, 2018).
Channel Relay Module with light coupling
A 1-Channel relay module with light coupling 5V is a special device often suitably used for household appliance regulation as well as a single-chip microcomputer. It consists of an open and closed contact, triode drive, energy supply indicator, high-impedance regulator, control indicator lamp, as well as a . The advantage of this relay module is the ability to regulate AC/DC signals as well as 240V current overloads (Kuongshun).
DHT-11 Digital Temperature and Humidity [PH 0-14] Liquid PH 0-14 Value detection regulator sensor
The ABO58 DHT-11 digital temperature and humidity value detection sensor is a medical device built based on the concept of liquid pH detection. It has a pH sensing concentration range of between 0 and 14 and temperature ranges between 0 and 80 C. The sensor has an input voltage of about 5V, uses a current of between 5 and 10Ma, and has a response time and stability period of roughly 5 and 60 seconds (Circuit Basics Arduino, 2018). The device is efficient in measuring temperatures and humidity levels because of its light weight and small size.
Figure 3.9 humidity sensor
Liquid ph 0-14 sensor + BNC ph electrode probe
The liquid pH probe + BNC pH electrode probe is a single cylindrical material that permits a direct link between the controller, pH meter, and pH gadget containing a BNC input end or terminal. Compared to the DHT-11 digital temperature and humidity value detection sensor, the BNC pH probe is reliable and accurate. The results are also instant. The device comprises of terminal blocks, BNC connector, an internal resistance of 250M, an alkali pH range of between 0.5 and 7, an operating temperature range between 0 and 60C, and a pH range of between 1 and 14. This device is applied in laboratories, aquariums, hydroponics, and many others (Aliexpress, 2018).
Figure 3.10 ph sensor
Solar panel 12v DC
This is a photovoltaic solar panel capable of supplying approximately a voltage of 12V that an attached battery storage system. Apart from the solar panel, the solar system setup comes with a charge controller, a battery, as well as inverter. The primary role of the controller is to turn on the system to charge the battery, which puts off the charging process to limit overcharging. The inverter, on the other hand, converts DC to AC (Webo Solar, 2018).
figure 3.11 solar panel
This is a device that accompanies the solar panel setup. It acts like a switch that regulates the charging of the battery by the solar panels. It puts on the system when the battery is undercharged and puts off the system to prevent overcharging (Northern Arizona Wind & Sun, 2018).
Figure 3.12 charge controller
|Components||Price of the components|
|Arduino Uno r3 with Cable||3.750 RO|
|DC6-12V MINI Aquarium water Pump R385||1.875 RO|
|12V 1.2AH rechargeable lead-acid battery||3.750 RO|
|HC-05 Bluetooth module||2.650 RO|
|5V Active Buzzer||0.150 RO|
|Channel Relay Module with light coupling||0.600 RO|
|DHT-11 Digital Temperature and Humidity [PH 0-14] Liquid PH 0-14 Value detection regulator sensor||0.900 RO|
|Liquid ph. 0-4 sensor+bnc ph. electrode probe
|Solar panel 12v DC
|Mini aquarium||9.000 RO|
|Red and black wire||0.300 RO|
|Male to female DuPont line||0.525 RO|
|Monocrystalline small solar cell||6.750 RO|
|Clear hose pipe||0.150 RO|
|Blue backlight||1.500 RO|
|Total price||53.85 RO|
Chapter 3 System Pre Design
CHAPTER 4 METHODOLOGY
This chapter presents the approach applied in this project. It also describes the procedure in phases from the initial idea to the final parts that entail, testing and hardware implementation. In addition to this, the other phases such as; result phase, development, designing of the hardware and software, design stage, research, and project planning will be included. A summary of the chapter will finalize this chapter.
4.1 Project Planning
To achieve objectives and aims in a project within the expected time, a plan precedes the task because it is used to guide the project efficiently and this has been implemented in this project. Selecting the project idea is done first then the committees authorization is sought. Thereafter, research about the project by perusing through existing literature. This helps to develop your practical and theoretical knowledge about this project.
The third phase involves identification of prerequisites for this project such as hardware, software, and other needs. Carry out a feasibility study and record the cost implications of the project. The next phase is a design that constitutes several stages therein. It is also in this stage, there are software and hardware design. The last phase comprises implementation and testing. Testing broadly means analyzing the outcomes to prove whether the project is effective. The following drawing illustrates project planning graphically.
Implementation and Testing
Figure 4.1 Project Planning Phases
4.2 Research Stage
The essential and primary parts of the project comprise this phase. This is because of information gathered from a paper about this project and other literature articles, websites, journals, and books. Research aids with achieving goals that are similar and it also assists with an appreciation of the limitations that could face the project based on previous studies as well as available resources.
Furthermore, this stage paints a clear picture of the project necessities. It further dissevers on whether it is a hardware or software need. For example, if you need a physical part to actualize the project, then that is a hardware necessity and this stage will advise on the actual solution. The scope, objectives, and aims were extricated after reviewing existing literature. This helped to define hardware specifications and software types for the project.
4.3 Design Phase
In the design phase, a device block model expounds on blocks connection as well as materials used. Further, there are subsystems and apparatuses that constitute the device as well as their parameters and specifications and how they interlink. Hardware and software design follows. Proteus software formed the basic software part, a choice that was achieved by reviewing literatures. In addition, hardware implementation provides a clear manual about this mechanical connection.
4.4 Software Design
When designing simulation applications, PCB layout, and electric circuit schemes, an electronic software used for design automation known as Proteus software is used. This software was utilized in this project and the logic is that it is simple to understand and use. As a result, it is easy to modify the circuit to match a users need.
4.5 Hardware Design
Information gathered from the different literature content guides the quality, modification, and how the components are connected to produce the desired output in the project. It also encompasses various electrical components such as a microcontroller that is key. The following chapters expound more about this.
4.6 Development Phase
In this phase, hardware mechanisms were interlinked productively as proved by the automated aquaponics system in software design.
4.7 Testing and Review Phase
Testing is significant because it proves workability of the project as well as its efficiency. The outcome from hardware implementation is reviewed and described using numbers, statistics and figures.
The methodology utilized in the project is outlined in stages; from the initial step of choosing the project to review the outcomes.
Chapter 4 Methodology
5.1 Software Implementation
The circuit of the system as firstly designed with proteus software .in order to adjust the circuit without any difficulty and to remove and add in the circuit. Since the program has these features it made the design process of the circuit easy and understandable
Figure 5.1(circuit diagram)
As shown at the previous figure, the main component in the circuit is the Arduino Uno, where the Arduino is the computer of the system that control and process the system, as a first step the Arduino Uno will be programed with the use of blynk application, the procedure of programing the system will be in five steps.
5.1.1 create blynk account
As a first step download blynk application from app store for IPhone or from google play for android play.
Figure5.2 create blynk account
After downloading the application, the following page in figure 5.1.1 will show, then create a new account.
5.1.2 Get Auth token
After creating an account, a new project will be created, then Arduino Uno bored will be chosen, after chosen the board the project will be created. the application will send Auth token to the email, Auth token is important to connect the hardware to the phone
5.1.3 add widget
The project page will be empty. buttons will be added to control the aquaponics system.
four widgets will be added, ph. widget, led widget, water pump button and Bluetooth.
Each widget has its own setting, each widget will be entered to create the setting, the most important thing is to set the pin of the component as it set in the hardware. When the process is done the press play button to get out from the editing mode.
To start programing Arduino will be connected with the computer with the use of USB cable, after connecting the latest blynk library will be downloaded, after downloading the board used will chose, and programing will be started. the Auth TOKEN will be used in the coding of the Arduino
5.1.4 run the system
When the programing is done the system will be ready to use.
5.2 Hardware Implementation
Hardware implementation of the system is done with the use of the component that have been specified earlier like solar panel, battery, charge controller, aquarium, water pump, sensors and Arduino Uno. This segment covers the connection of the component with the aquarium and the planet.
5.2.1 aquarium and planet bed
Figure 5.3 body of the system
PVC pipe is used as a plants holder where six round holes is made to place the holder cups on it, inside the PVC three pipes are placed for the water cycle. Therefore, the plant holder is sited on top of the aquarium
5.2.2 power source
Figure 5.4 solar panel connection
The energy source in this system is the solar panel, solar panel is connected with charge controller and battery to generate the water pump. Solar panel will absorb the energy from the sun light, charge controller allows the power moves between the devices for the battery will be charged and the water pump will be generated.
5.2.3 Arduino Uno circuit
PH sensor, humidity sensor and temperature sensor Will be connected to the Arduino, Power source circuit and Bluetooth module will be connected to the Arduino. For the operation of the system the Arduino will be connected to the blynk application with the use of the Bluetooth module.
Figure 5.5 Arduino connections
This chapter clarified the method of the contraption and its conventional yield, the mechanical assembly use of the structure with its explanations, and the testing theory with its result. The thing used was done using Proteus programming and Arduino CC, and Hardware execution included related the parts in the referenced stages. Finally, the testing was done into three stages; testing of parts, testing of subsystem circuits, and testing of the device in its last stage in the wake of finishing its execution.
Chapter 5 System Design and Implementation
CHAPTER 6 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
This chapter incorporates the outcome got from testing the system in various conditions and in numerous stages, and a correlation between both hardware and programming usage
6.1 water circulation result
Water circulation is done successfully, therefore the water pump is generated with the use of the solar panel. the water circulation started from the fish tank where the water from the fishs is pumped with the use of the water pump to the plants that placed on top of the fish aquarium, plants will use part of the water and will filter the rest with the remained water with the use of the roots. the remained of the filtered water will be returned to the fish aquarium, the circulation will be sustained.
6.2 Blynk application
Temperature sensor, PH sensor and humidity sensor are connected to the Arduino and the Arduino is connected to blynk application that have been installed in the mobile, the interface between the mobile and Arduino is done with the use of Bluetooth module.
Figure 6.2 blynk page
As shown in figure 6.2, this page shows the blynk application work, where it contains four widgets the first widget is pump it can control the water pump by turn it on and off wirelessly from a short distance. Second widget represent the PH warning, when the PH is above 7 a notification will show, the third widget is LCD screen, it displays the temperature and PH of the water.
In figure 6.2 all the widgets work effectively when the pump is on.
Figure 6.3 pump is off
In figure 6.3 shows that even if the water pump if off the application takes the readings of the sensors and display it in the LCD.
6.3 system default
In case there is a default in the system in term of PH of the water increased above 7 or decreased under 6. Or in case of impairment of the water pump. the user will get a notification at different ways
Figure 6.4 PH warning
As shown in figure 6.4 PH is above 7, the color of PH widget changed to red and notification showed in the LCD display. And the buzzer will turn on.
This chapter incorporated the outcome got from testing the device in various conditions and in numerous stages, and an examination between both equipment and programming execution. Moreover, brief examination between the exploratory outcome from this gadget and the yield from different past writing gadget was referenced.
CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSION
At the end of this project we have designed automat solar powered aquaponics system for the purpose of producing solar energy for actuators. The system also made it possible for the mobile users to get the reading of the sensors and to control the water pump, by the use of a mobile application that known as blynk application which contain the information and control the system. As it was made to perform, the system is in position to continuously monitor and control the quality of water being used, and the type of the feed that fish will be given. The system has reduced the operation cost and also reduced the labor was. On the other hand, the system led to increase the livestock production and profitability which has led to the contribution of sustainable and make life in cities simple.
The main goal of the aquaponics system was to make sure it has established the self-sustainable in the day to day applied research environment based mostly on home affairs and the nutrient production for the plant and fish production. In the future, the project is trying to come up with the idea of keeping more varieties of both vegetables and fish. This has been in the future projection of the system. The aquaponics system in future the project needs to spread the idea all over the world for the countries with the scarcity of land to apply the method as it will help the country to produce more in their market and avoid much importation of the products that can be produced locally by the use of aquaponics system of by the use of solar energy which is available in most parts of the continent.
Chapter 7 conclusion
CHAPTER 8 RECOMMENDATIONS/ FUTURE WORK
CHAPTER 8 RECOMMENDATIONS/ FUTURE WORK
According to the outcomes achieved from examine of the system, the following commendations has been recognized to enhance the working of the system:
Use higher voltage solar panel to improve the efficiency of the water pump
The system can be enhanced by replacing Bluetooth module with GSM shield where it can monitor the system from long range
8.2 future work
With the development in the world, more food and water is consumed and un clean energy as will. for that aquaponics system will make a major change in the food and energy industry.
To produce crop and fishes in areas that has lake of water, vertical farming aquaponics system will be the best resolution, the production of the crops and fishes will be increased even if the land was small. plants and fish produced can be exported world wild.
Chapter 8 Recommendations/ Future Work
Blum, Jeremy,nd. Solar systems basics. [eBook]. Available from. [Accessed 10th December 2016]
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Circuit Digest, nd.Solar cells PV. [Online]. Available from .[Accessed 2th December 2016]
cabrillos, vingemgeaga, natividad, ryanceazarsantua , 2013.Solar-powered Phone Charger is as efficient as the Wall Phone Charger.[e-journal]. Available from
E.Basha, D.Rus, 2012. Design of PV solar cell. Library Review. [e-journal]. Available from. [Accessed 6th December 2016]
Fayeez,Gannapath, MdIsaNorAzyze, 2015. Battery powered and solar powered wireless sensor node.[e-journal]. Available from.pdf” target=”_blank” rel=”nofollow noopener”>http //www.ijsrp.org/research-paper-1212/ijsrp-p1217.pdf
John.Jproakis, 1966.Solar simple power bank, USA. Available from
Power supplies,nd.Working principle of PV.[Online]. Available from. [Accessed 1th December 2016]
Solar energy power bank circuit Digest, nd. [Online]. Available from. [Accessed 2th December 2016]
Singh, Bhardwaj, Singh, 2014. Design and Development of Portable PowerCharger A Green Energy Initiative. Library Review. [e-journal]. Available from[Accessed 6th December 2016]
Pradhan, Ali, PuspapriyaBehera, 2012. Utilization of solar bank in case of solar system and classifications of battery.[e-journal]. Available from
Solar Digest, 2011.Solar energy and PV news.[Online]. Available from” target=”_blank” rel=”nofollow noopener”>http //www.solardigest.co.uk/tools-and-workwear. [Accessed 15thmarch 2016]
Solar Digest, 2010.Solar installation kit[Online]. Available from” target=”_blank” rel=”nofollow noopener”>http //www.solardigest.co.uk/tools-and-workwear/223-new-pv-solar-installation-kit-from-klauke. [Accessed 2thapril2016]
R. W Hamming, 2001.Electrical charges verses solar.[E-book], USA. Available from. [Accessed 5thDecember 2016]
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Wikipedia, 2015.DC converter. [Online]. Available from. [Accessed 18thMarch 2017]
|D U R A T I O N 1 D I V = 1 Week|
|Activity||Research Methodology||Technical Project|
|Discuss on the project idea with supervisor|
|Complete the topic identification outline|
|Study the working method of PV solar cells|
|Pre design for the system|
|Prepare for Final Presentation|
|Collect the hardware requirements|
|Modification of the project|
|Project Assembly and circuit diagram drawing
|Get ready for Interim Presentation|
|Check the output of the device|
|Writing final project report|
|Prepare for final presentation|
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